November 22, 2010

Opportunity has power industry scrambling

Benefits: Big cuts in fuel costs, greenhouse gas emissions

By JONATHAN FAHEY The Associated Press

click image to enlarge

Lee Colin, vice president of business development for Green Vehicles, drives the Triac electric car at the company’s new factory in Salinas, Calif. With its mild weather, California is expected to be a hot spot for the technology.

The Associated Press

HOME CHARGE MAY BE A JOLT

NEW YORK - Getting your home ready to charge an electric car will require little time or money -- or a couple months and thousands of dollars.

It depends on what kind of electric car you buy, the wiring in your home and how quickly you want to juice your ride.

Electric cars are powered by batteries that are charged by plugging them into a standard wall socket or a more powerful charging station.

The charging station will cut your charging time roughly in half, and reduce the chance you'll trip a circuit. But it will likely cost $2,000 or more.

The price will rise if you need a new electrical panel, which could add another $2,000.

The main thing to consider is how you are going to use your electric car.

If your commute is short, or there's a charging station near your office, you might not need much of a charge at home. You can get away with topping off your battery overnight.

A standard 120-volt wall socket will give a car about five miles of driving for every hour of charging. That means if you had a 40 mile round-trip commute you'd be able to charge in 8 hours.

If you deplete your battery most days, a charging station connected to a 240-volt socket, like ones used for most electric dryers, could be worthwhile.

-- The Associated Press

The first mass-market electric cars go on sale next month, and the nation's electric utilities couldn't be more thrilled -- or worried.

Plugged into a socket, an electric car can draw as much power as a small house.

The surge in demand could knock out power to a home, or even a neighborhood. That has utilities in parts of California, Texas and North Carolina scrambling to upgrade transformers and other equipment in neighborhoods where the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt are expected to be in high demand.

Not since air conditioning spread across the country in the 1950s and 1960s has the power industry faced such a growth opportunity.

Last year, Americans spent $325 billion on gasoline, and utilities would love even a small piece of that market.

The main obstacles to wide-scale use of electric cars are high cost and limited range, at least until a network of charging stations is built. But utility executives fret that difficulties keeping the lights on for the first crop of buyers -- and their neighbors -- could slow the growth of this new niche.

"You never get a second chance to make a first impression," says Mike Rowand, who is in charge of electric vehicle planning at Duke Energy.

Auto executives say it's inevitable that utilities will experience some difficulties early on. "We are all going to be a lot smarter two years from now," says Mark Perry, director of product planning for Nissan North America.

Electric cars run on big batteries that are charged by plugging into a standard wall socket or a more powerful charging station.

A combined 30,000 Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts are expected to be sold over the next year. Over the next two years, Ford, Toyota and every other major automaker also plan to offer electric cars.

Governments are promoting the technology as a way to reduce dependence on foreign oil, cut greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality.

Congress is offering electric car buyers a $7,500 tax credit and some states and cities provide additional subsidies that can total $8,000. The Leaf sells for $33,000, the Volt for $41,000.

Electric cars produce no emissions, but the electricity they are charged with is made mostly from fossil fuels like coal and natural gas, which do. Still, electric cars produce two-thirds fewer greenhouse gas emissions, on average, than a similarly sized car that runs on gasoline, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council.

Driving 10,000 miles on electricity will use about 2,500 kilowatt-hours, or 20 percent more than the average annual consumption of U.S. homes. At an average utility rate of 11 cents per kilowatt-hour, that's $275 for a year of fuel, equivalent to about 70 cents per gallon of gasoline.

"Electric vehicles have the potential to completely transform our business," says David Owens, executive vice president of the Edison Electric Institute, a trade group.

Nationwide, utilities have enough power plants and equipment to power hundreds of thousands of electric cars. Problems could crop up long before that many are sold, though, because of a phenomenon carmakers and utilities call "clustering."

Electric vehicle clusters are expected in neighborhoods where:

Generous subsidies are offered by states and localities.

Weather is mild, because batteries tend to perform better in warmer climates.

High-income and environmentally conscious commuters live.

So while states like North Dakota and Montana may see very few electric cars, California cities like Santa Monica, Santa Barbara and Monrovia could see several vehicles on a block.

SoCal Edison expects to be charging 100,000 cars by 2015. California has set a goal of 1 million electric vehicles by 2020.

Progress Energy is expecting electric car clusters to form in Raleigh, Cary and Asheville, N.C. and around Orlando and Tampa, Fla. Duke Energy is expecting the same in Charlotte and Indianapolis.

Adding an electric vehicle or two to a neighborhood can be like adding another house, and it can stress the equipment that services those houses. "We're talking about doubling the load of a conventional home," says Karl Rabago, who leads Austin Energy's electric vehicle-readiness program. "It's big."

 

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