December 14, 2013

Maine parents fight to treat sick children with medical marijuana

A low-potency but effective strain from Colorado offers Maine families hope, but tests the legal limits of medicinal pot and highlights how far some parents will go to alleviate the suffering of kids who have epilepsy.

By Mary Pols mpols@pressherald.com
Staff Writer

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Meagan Patrick plays with her daughter, Addelyn, at their Acton home earlier this month. The baby has severe epilepsy, and the family is taking steps to try treating her seizures with a strain of medicinal marijuana not readily available in Maine.

Gabe Souza/Staff Photographer

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Christy Shake of Brunswick is battling misconceptions about medical marijuana’s use and its effects on her son, Calvin. She’s petitioned the president and lawmakers to remove it from the list of Schedule 1 drugs.

John Ewing/Staff Photographer

Additional Photos Below

Medical Marijuana: Children and epilepsy

Q: How do parents get marijuana for children?

A: The state certifies minors for the same conditions it does adults, which range from cancer to glaucoma and include seizures characteristic of epilepsy. Parents ask their physician to evaluate their minor child and make a recommendation that the child be certified for medical marijuana. The physician makes a referral to Maine’s Department of Health and Human Services. An independent physician contracted by the state then has 10 days to render an opinion. This recommendation is returned to the consulting physician for further consideration and discussion with the parents. According to DHHS, about 20 to 25 petitions from minors are considered annually and about half of those are approved.

 

Q: Do they smoke it?

A: No, they don’t have to and rarely would. But that’s a common misconception. Berwick mother Heather Bowie, who is researching the treatment for her 12-year-old son, Aidan, said when she first heard of medical marijuana as a means to treat his epilepsy, her first thought was that her disabled son couldn’t smoke. She didn’t know yet about tinctures, where the drug is suspended in liquid and can be mixed into food, placed under the tongue or even rubbed into the skin.

 

Q: Will they get high?

A: Not if they’re using a plant high in CBD and extremely low in THC, the psychoactive component that makes people high. “I also had no idea you could just grow out the getting high point,” Bowie said. “So I wouldn’t expect the public to know that and I would expect the sidelong glances if we go ahead with it.”

 

Q: But what will happen to the children?

A: Their seizures could lessen – possibly dramatically, possibly only slightly. Side effects can include lethargy and improved mood and appetite. The long-term effects of giving medical marijuana to children are not yet known.

cannabidiol at a glance

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol is a nonpsychoactive component of the cannabis plant. It has been shown to have a sedative effect and repress convulsions and seizures. It can increase appetite, fight nausea and act as an anti-inflammatory.

What is THC?

Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive component in the cannabis plant. It is what causes hallucinatory effects on the brain and produces the classic “high.”

What makes high-CBD marijuana different?

Charlotte’s Web, the high-CBD strain from Colorado, is 17 percent CBD, and only 0.05 percent THC. Maine growers say they’ve managed to get CBD levels as high as 8 percent, but the THC remains about 5 percent. For perspective, the average THC content of pot in 1980 was 2 percent, according to a Mayo Clinic study. By 1997, the average THC content of pot had more than doubled and by 2006 it was 8.55 percent.

Is the high-CBD strain more expensive than other medical marijuana?

No. Canna-tsu, the 6.66 percent CBD strain Maine Organic Therapy in Ellsworth is selling, is no more expensive than other medical marijuanas; a 2-ounce tincture, which lasts the average patient two weeks, costs $50. But the Patrick family expects to pay between $300 and $500 a month for Addy’s treatment in Colorado. That’s more expensive than her pharmaceutical medications, but primarily because those meds are covered by insurance and the Patricks will pay out of pocket for the Charlotte’s Web.

Even if a Maine family can obtain something similar – growers in Maine are working on high-CBD, low-THC strains right now – many of these children regularly cross state lines for doctor’s appointments at Boston Children’s Hospital or Massachusetts General. Their medicine has to go with them. As Joan Smyrski of Maine’s Division of Licensing and Regulatory Services for medicinal marijuana points out, that’s a lawbreaker.

“It’s drug trafficking,” she said.

‘DESPERATE, DESPERATE PARENTS’

What are parents supposed to do if they don’t want to break the law every time they cross the Piscataqua River Bridge?

The Patrick family is taking the most extreme approach, in part because their daughter, Addy, is at such a vulnerable age developmentally. Every seizure in effect turns off her brain, however briefly, and stops her from developing as a healthy child does. The prognosis is that she’ll likely develop more kinds of seizures as she gets older. A seizure could kill her – 34 percent of all sudden deaths in children are caused by Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy, according to CURE, an epilepsy research institution – and all will steadily slow her development. But the medicines she takes are limiting her development as well, because of their side effects. She sleeps 22 out of 24 hours as is. The Patricks keep Addy’s monthly supply of anti-seizure medication in a box the size of a beauty queen’s makeup kit and it is always locked, for fear that her 4-year-old brother, Colin, might get into it.

The financial toll on her parents since her diagnosis at six months has already been considerable, even with help from family and friends, and maintaining households in two states is hardly a great option. But it represents hope, which can be hard to come by for these families.

“We are desperate, desperate parents,” said Michelle Chumsae of York. Her 8-year-old son, Miles, requires a feeding tube and full-time care. His seizures, associated with Down syndrome, began when he was 4 months old.

For several years they were under control through medication and the high-fat, low-carb ketogenic diet, but a year ago, they returned. Every new pharmaceutical she tries on Miles feels like a game of Russian roulette, Chumsae says. Will it work? And if so, will it also make him miserable? Chumsae worries that medical marijuana may be over-hyped – “We’re at risk of thinking there is some magical thing” – but if there were something entirely natural that could help these children, it would be a “game changer.”

South Berwick mother Samantha Brown’s daughter Kaylee, 2, was recently diagnosed with Dravet syndrome, a catastrophic childhood epilepsy. Her mother obtained a tincture of medicinal marijuana this fall – she declines to say where from – and has been using it with success. The seizures have slowed, and Kaylee seems happier and more active.

“I don’t know if it is a coincidence, but that week she started exploding with words,” she said.

Brown said she would consider growing plants herself, if need be. “My opinion before was just kind of neutral,” she said. “I could never have imagined growing marijuana. However, now, with the amount of healing it can do?”

A TANTALIZING PROSPECT

One in 26 of all Americans will develop epilepsy in their lifetimes, according to a spokeswoman for CURE, the epilepsy research institution, and one in 100 children will develop it. The Epilepsy Foundation estimates there are 45,000 new cases of epilepsy in children under the age of 15 each year.

Brunswick mother Christy Shake’s son, Calvin, 9, was diagnosed with epilepsy at age 2. A fierce advocate for CURE, she has chronicled her search for a better anti-seizure medicine for Calvin – who is about to try his 11th type – on her blog at www.calvinsstory.com. It’s a constant balancing act. One medicine might decrease the seizures but make him lethargic, or manic, or just give him the kind of intestinal issues that keep him chronically underweight.

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Additional Photos

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Meagan Patrick gives Addy a gentle caress at their Acton home earlier this month. The strain of medical marijuana that Patrick wants to treat Addy’s epilepsy with is called Charlotte’s Web and is grown in Colorado. One problem in obtaining it is that it’s a federally classified Schedule 1 drug that can’t legally be taken across state lines.

Gabe Souza/Staff Photographer

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Meagan Patrick holds Addy’s feet as she lays her down to rest. Addy was diagnosed with epilepsy at 4 months, and both her seizures and medications slow her development.

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Thirteen-month-old Addy Patrick’s medications are kept in a lockbox so her 4-year-old brother can’t get into them. Addy’s parents and others whose children have epilepsy are ‘desperate’ to find a medicine that’s natural and has few if any side effects.



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