August 6, 2012

Head Start hit with cuts amid slaps at education

Programs are being scaled back despite evidence that early training provides a foundation for later success in school.

By BEN McCANNA Morning Sentinel

WATERVILLE - While Gov. Paul LePage made headlines last month by blasting the state's education system, the Head Start programs here and others statewide continued to grapple with budget cuts made by the Legislature.

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Carter Nichols eats lunch Friday at Educare Central Maine in Waterville, where children up to age 5 receive Head Start services.

Michael G. Seamans/Morning Sentinel

At Educare Central Maine on Drummond Avenue, administrators closed one class and eliminated four jobs because of the funding cuts. At other Head Start programs around the state, 25 people could lose their jobs and about 200 at-risk children lost the opportunity to attend early-education schools, according to analysts.

"It's scary," said Laurie LaChance, chairwoman of Educare Central Maine. "I understand what happens at the budget level, and I understand the tough choices, but any time we take even a small step backward, it's a step in the wrong direction."

In May, the Legislature reduced funding for Head Start by $2 million. At Educare, which serves about 220 children up to age 5, the cut translates to a loss of $210,000, according to the school's director, Kathryn Colfer.

The cuts come from two directions, Colfer said. The school will receive $150,000 less from the state in direct funding, and families enrolled in the program will receive less tuition assistance from the state, roughly $60,000. The program also has lost $77,000 in federal money now that the American Rehabilitation and Recovery Act has expired, she said.

As a result of the $287,000 loss, Educare eliminated three teaching positions and an administrative position and closed one of its full-day, full-year classes that served eight infants and toddlers, its most staff-intensive and expensive program.

"We didn't kick anybody out of the program," Colfer said of the class closure. "We did it through attrition. It just means that there are eight fewer opportunities for enrollment."

Head Start is a federal program that provides education to children up to 5 years old, and child care for their families, primarily those living in poverty. The majority of Head Start funding is paid by the federal government directly to qualified schools, but Maine provides additional support, Colfer said.

Head Start programs in Maine have the capacity to serve fewer than 30 percent of Maine's income-eligible children, according to data from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. In 2010, there were 18,000 children up to age 5 living in poverty in Maine.

Ed Cervone is interim president of the Maine Development Foundation, a group that strives to improve long-term, sustainable economic development for Maine. Cervone said Head Start programs have the power to end the cycle of poverty in Maine by focusing on its youngest children.

Education is "their foundation for success or failure," Cervone said. "Poverty is a huge, toxic stress to a family and a kid. If a kid is already coming into the world into poverty, there's already one strike against them -- one more hurdle for them to get to success. Programs like Head Start are valuable, proven, and have good effects for Maine kids."

Judy Reidt-Parker, an early-childhood policy analyst for the Maine Children's Alliance, said studies show that the return on investment for Head Start programs is higher than the funding of older age groups or children in different economic circumstances.

"The thing that makes Head Start special is it's targeted at a specific at-risk population. You get a return of $7 for every $1 invested," she said. "These studies have been going on for 35 to 40 years, and the returns are pretty evident now."

Despite the research, early-education programs receive a small percentage of overall education programs in the state and elsewhere, said LaChance, who is also president of Thomas College.

"If we consider it all together, might we shift some of the resources to that earlier time in life?" she said. "Ultimately, when children enter the school system, they would be much more ready to learn, and they would have a much greater opportunity for success throughout their entire school career. If we did that, I believe we would see a reduction in special-education costs. We would ultimately see better scores on our fourth-grade reading tests."

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