June 19, 2013

Combat ready: Women in the military

The military cites culture concerns as it gets ready for women moving into special operations units.

By LOLITA C. BALDOR The Associated Press

Declaring "the days of Rambo are over," a top general said Tuesday that cultural, social and behavioral concerns may be bigger hurdles than tough physical fitness requirements for women looking to join the military's special operations units.

U.S. soldier Pfc. Janelle Zalkovsky, from civil affairs unit of 1st Battalion, 320th Field Artillery..
click image to enlarge

Pfc. Janelle Zalkovsky provides security while other soldiers survey a newly constructed road in Ibriam Jaffes, Iraq in this handout photo released December 7, 2005. Women will have more frontline jobs available to them under new Pentagon regulations.

Reuters

A LONG MARCH TO EQUAL STATUS

1948 - Law passed making women a permanent part of the U.S. military services.

1975 - The Air Force puts the first woman on operational crew status.

1976 - The first group of women enters the U.S. military academies.

1983 - About 200 Army and Air Force women are among the forces deployed to Grenada, serving on air crews, as military police and as transportation specialists.

1990-91 - Some 40,000 American military women are deployed during the Gulf War operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

1994 - A Pentagon policy prohibits women from being assigned to ground combat units below the brigade level.

2002 - Marine Sgt. Jeannette L. Winters becomes the first U.S. servicewoman to die in the post-9/11 wars. She was killed in a refueling tanker crash.

2005 - Sgt. Leigh Ann Hester, a Kentucky National Guard soldier, becomes the first woman awarded the Silver Star for service in the war on terror. Her convoy came under attack outside Baghdad. She was cited for killing several insurgents and saving the lives of numerous convoy members.

2008 - Ann E. Dunwoody becomes the military's first women to be promoted to general.

2012 - The military opens more than 14,000 jobs in smaller units closer to the front lines.

2013 - Then-Defense Secretary Leon Panetta and Gen. Martin Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs, sign order saying women must have the same opportunities as men in combat jobs.

– The Associated Press

Maj. Gen. Bennet Sacolick, director of force management for U.S. Special Operations Command, said having seen women working alongside commando teams in Afghanistan, he is less concerned about their physical strength than the social issues that could arise. His comments came as military leaders mapped out plans Tuesday to develop physical and mental standards for thousands of combat jobs and slowly bring women into front-line positions, including possibly Navy SEAL teams or Army Ranger units, where they historically have been banned from serving.

"I'm actually more concerned with the men and their reaction to women in their formations, quite frankly," Sacolick said, reflecting concerns about whether men would accept women in units that have long operated as small, male-only teams working in close quarters and harsh environment for extended periods of time.

He said the military has moved beyond the Hollywood stereotype of a commando, instead looking for special operators who "can speak and learn a foreign language, who understand culture, who can work with indigenous populations and have culturally attuned manners," Sacolick said. "When people fail in the special forces qualification course, predominantly they fail because they're not doing their homework."

Under details the military laid out Tuesday, women could start training as Army Rangers by mid-2015 and as Navy SEALs a year later. U.S. Special Operations Command is coordinating the studies of what commando jobs could be opened to women, what exceptions might be requested and when the transition would take place.

The proposals could mean that women are still excluded from some jobs if research and testing find that women could not be successful. But the services would have to defend such decisions to top Pentagon leaders. Still, Sacolick said he could foresee a commando team of 11 men and one woman, if only a single female sought the job and qualified.

The military services have mapped out a schedule that includes reviewing and possibly changing the physical and mental requirements for certain infantry, armor, commando and other front-line positions across the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines. Under the plans there would be one common requirements for men and women for each post, and it would be based on specific tasks troops need to do in order to perform those jobs. Officials say standards will not be lowered in order to bring women into certain posts.

In his memo to the services, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel said "the department remains committed to removing all gender barriers, wherever possible, and meeting our missions with the best qualified and most capable personnel." He also said that the military will ensure that all women entering the newly opened jobs will be able to "meet the standards required to maintain our war fighting capability."

Critics have questioned whether the change would result in any erosion of the military's readiness for battle.

Elaine Donnelly, head of the conservative Center for Military Readiness, has been a vocal critic of the proposed changes. She questioned efforts to review standards for military jobs, saying that, "Due to physical differences that have been affirmed by more than 30 years of studies and reports on the subject, all possible options for implementing 'gender-neutral standards' would have the effect of lowering requirements."

Military leaders have suggested bringing senior women from the officer and enlisted ranks into special forces units first to ensure that younger, lower-ranking women have a support system to help them get through the transition. The Navy intends to open up its Riverine force and begin training women next month, with the goal of assigning women to the units by October. While not part of the special operations forces, the coastal Riverine squadrons do close combat and security operations in small boats. The Navy plans to have studies finished by July 2014 on allowing women to serve as SEALs, and has set October 2015 as the date when women could begin Navy boot camp with the expressed intention of becoming SEALs eventually.

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