May 5, 2013

Pitchmen using guerrilla tactics to reach everyone we know

Modern marketers desperately want to fit in – into our blogs, our Twitter feeds, our status updates. Why? Because word-of-mouth works.


Back in 2006, a year still young in the Web 2.0 era, Laura and Jim set off cross-country in their new RV and chronicled the journey on a blog. They pitched camp in Walmart lots across the heartland and posted photos and vignettes from the road, including chipper portraits of the employees they encountered along the way.

click image to enlarge

click image to enlarge

Staff Photo Illustration/Michael Fisher

What went largely unsaid was that a public-relations firm representing Walmart Stores had sponsored the entire trip. They were "Walmarting Across America," as the blog was called, on the retailer's dime.

Modern marketers desperately want to fit in -- into our blogs, our Twitter feeds, our YouTube uploads and our status updates. Social media, they suspect, conveys authenticity. And no quality is more coveted for advertising than authenticity. A 30-second commercial comes off as affected, but a Facebook posting seems artless.

Hoping to capitalize on this perception, companies are turning to guerrilla marketing like this -- word-of-mouth campaigns, increasingly via social media, in which putatively objective people happen to suggest a certain product they've tried and loved. According to one estimate, 85 percent of the biggest marketers in the U.S. are now using some sort of word-of-mouth component in their campaigns. BzzAgent, the largest provider of such services, at one point boasted a half-million volunteers who were reporting back to the company on such conversations.

These strategies owe a distant debt to the pioneers of public relations, like Edward Bernays. As Stuart Ewen recounts in "PR! A Social History of Spin," Bernays organized "organic" movements and staged pseudo-events to seem spontaneous, hoping to give a bottom-up sheen to top-down marketing campaigns by politicians and corporations.

For instance, by orchestrating a "Torches of Freedom" march, where early feminists held cigarettes aloft to symbolize equality aspirations, Bernays managed to yoke women's liberation to the tobacco industry's aims.

In another sly example, Bernays persuaded physicians to recommend a particular bacon brand to their patients. He was also part of the U.S. government's "Four-Minute Men" project, which enlisted community leaders nationwide to sermonize before movie showings in support of entering World War I. Much like today's BzzAgents get bullet-point anecdotes to accompany their free samples, "Four-Minute Men" worked the crowds with suggested talking points.

The crux of spin, then as now, is to plant persuasion through an intermediary who seems neutral and trustworthy. As Bernays wrote, some 80 years ago, "If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which they sway."

The success of this strategy wasn't lost on other marketers. The use of "brand evangelists" goes as far back as the 1920s, when Macy's cleared out an inventory of white gloves by hiring elegant women to don them on subway trains to stir up conversation. Avon and Tupperware have used women's friendships and social capital to push their products for almost as long as the companies have existed.

And teens have long been exploited for "peer-to-peer marketing." In the 1930s, young girls were recruited and paid to scream themselves into a tizzy to hype up Frank Sinatra. Two decades later, Hires Root Beer targeted popular girls to introduce their classmates to the soda at parties and to record their feedback. Converse, in the 1980s, started "seeding" its sneakers among the "in-crowd" at California high schools.

In the past decade, however, "real-life product placement" has exploded, partly because we've gone from consuming content mostly produced and distributed by media professionals, to content co-created and spread by amateurs. And the more of our lives we spend on Twitter and Facebook, the more marketers will try to reach us there.

(Continued on page 2)

Were you interviewed for this story? If so, please fill out our accuracy form

Send question/comment to the editors

Further Discussion

Here at we value our readers and are committed to growing our community by encouraging you to add to the discussion. To ensure conscientious dialogue we have implemented a strict no-bullying policy. To participate, you must follow our Terms of Use.

Questions about the article? Add them below and we’ll try to answer them or do a follow-up post as soon as we can. Technical problems? Email them to us with an exact description of the problem. Make sure to include:
  • Type of computer or mobile device your are using
  • Exact operating system and browser you are viewing the site on (TIP: You can easily determine your operating system here.)