WILMINGTON, Del. — As President Biden prepares a final decision on the huge Willow oil project in Alaska, he will prevent or limit oil drilling in 16 million acres in Alaska and the Arctic Ocean, an administration official said on Sunday.

The announcement, which was expected as soon as Sunday evening, would bar drilling in nearly 3 million acres of the Arctic Ocean – closing off the rest of its federal waters from oil exploration – and limit drilling in more than 13 million acres in a vast swath of land known as the National Petroleum Reserve – Alaska.

The official requested anonymity to discuss the conservation effort before it is officially unveiled.

The moves come as regulators prepare to announce a final decision on the Willow project, a controversial oil drilling plan pushed by ConocoPhillips in the petroleum reserve. Climate activists have rallied against the Willow project, calling it a “carbon bomb” that would be a betrayal of Biden’s campaign pledges to curb new oil and gas drilling.

Meanwhile, Alaska lawmakers, unions and indigenous communities have pressured Biden to approve the project, saying it would bring much-needed jobs and billions of dollars in taxes and mitigation funds to the vast, snow- and ice-covered region nearly 600 miles from Anchorage.

Biden’s decision on Willow will be one of his most consequential climate decisions and comes as he gears up for a likely reelection bid in 2024. A decision to approve Willow risks alienating young voters who have urged stronger climate action by the White House and could spark protests similar to those against the failed Keystone XL oil pipeline during the Obama administration.


Rejection of the project would meet strong resistance from Alaska’s bipartisan congressional delegation, which met with top officials at the White House in recent days to lobby for the project. Republican Sen. Lisa Murkowski, who provided key support to confirm Interior Secretary Deb Haaland, said it was no secret she has cooperated with the White House on a range of issues.

“Cooperation goes both ways,″ she told reporters.

Haaland, who fought the Willow project as a member of Congress, has the final decision on whether to approve it, although top White House climate officials are likely to be involved, with input from Biden himself. The White House said no final decision on Willow has been reached.

Under the conservation plan set to be announced, Biden would bar drilling in nearly 3 million acres of the Arctic Ocean, and impose new protections in the petroleum reserve. The proposed Willow project is within the reserve, a century-old designation the size of Indiana. About half of the reserve is off limits to oil and gas leasing under an Obama-era rule reinstated by the Biden administration last year.

Areas to be protected include the Teshekpuk Lake, Utukok Uplands, Colville River, Kasegaluk Lagoon and Peard Bay Special Areas, the official said.

In 2015, President Barack Obama halted exploration in coastal areas of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, and he later withdrew most other potential Arctic Ocean lease areas — about 98 percent of the Arctic outer continental shelf. The bans were intended to protect polar bears, walruses, ice seals and Alaska Native villages that depend on the animals.

The administration received one bid in December for the right to drill offshore for oil and gas in Alaska’s Cook Inlet.

It was unclear whether the latest announcement would mollify environmentalists, particularly young activists who have flooded social media with critiques of the Willow project, if the administration ultimately announces it will allow the Willow project to move forward.

Willow would be the biggest new oil field in decades in Alaska, producing up to 180,000 barrels per day, according to ConocoPhillips.

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