September 8, 2013

Students feeling pressure to blend in

As schools emphasize self-discipline, difficulty in achieving that is treated as a disorder and unconventional behavior is suppressed.

By KATY WALDMAN/Slate

WASHINGTON - A powerful essay by Elizabeth Weil in the New Republic posits that "American Schools Are Failing Nonconformist Kids."

Weil examines the growing role that "emotional regulation" -- an educational tool pioneered by the KIPP charter school network and also known as self-regulation, grit, motivation, discipline -- is playing in classroom management, as teachers try to keep order and foster learning.

The new ideal student, she says, is a compliant "good citizen" who keeps her head down and who "doesn't externalize problems or talk too much or challenge the rules too frequently or move around excessively or complain about the curriculum or have passionate outbursts."

But wait -- how is this different from the old ideal student? Rather than following external cues, scholar 2.0 has an inner compass keeping her on the straight-and-narrow. If she strays, some internal malfunction has occurred -- one requiring therapy, tutoring or medication.

So a disobedient kid isn't just playing the outlaw, Ferris Bueller-style; she's somehow broken, damaged.

To build a case around the rise of the Stepford kid and the denigration of the maverick, Weil points to the popularity of education books like Paul Tough's "How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character," which names quiet tenacity as the key to flourishing.

She also points to the escalating diagnoses of ADHD and sensory processing disorder, which perhaps lead educators to cordon off those who don't meet strict behavioral expectations.

She recounts her own experience at a parent-teacher conference, when a second-grade teacher recommended occupational therapy because her daughter "was not gently going along with the sit-still, raise-your-hand-to-speak-during-circle-time program." "Have you disciplined her?" Weil's husband asked. After the teacher replied that he hadn't, Weil "began to realize we'd crossed some weird Foucaultian threshold into a world in which authority figures pathologize children instead of punishing them."

You might think that sparing the rod (or whatever the contemporary equivalent is: not confiscating the iPhone, maybe) would at least create a free, exploratory space -- a place where kids could experiment with different identities. But if they are told in the same breath that unruliness is a psychic shortcoming, one they need an adult's help to address, the pressure to blend in actually grows.

Weil traces one effect of placing nonconformity on a spectrum of illness or disability:

"The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking judge originality, emotional expressiveness, humor, intellectual vitality, open-mindedness, and ability to synthesize and elaborate on ideas. Since 1984, the scores of America's schoolchildren have dropped by more than one standard deviation; that is to say, 85 percent of kids scored lower in 2008 than their counterparts did in 1984. Not coincidentally, that decrease happened as schools were becoming obsessed with self-regulation."

It is unclear what this emphasis on emotional self-control even accomplishes:

"In 2007, Greg Duncan, a professor of education at the University of California at Irvine, did an analysis of the effects of social and emotional problems on a sample of 25,000 elementary school students. He found, he says, 'Emotional intelligence in kindergarten was completely unpredictive.' Children who started school socially and emotionally unruly did just as well academically as their more contained peers from first through eighth grades.

"David Grissmer, at the University of Virginia, reran Duncan's analysis repeatedly, hoping to prove him wrong. Instead, he confirmed that Duncan was right. A paper from Florida International University also found minimal correlation between emotional intelligence and college students' GPAs."

(Continued on page 2)

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