August 12, 2012

From caught to bought, all about lobster economics

By Jessica Hall
Staff Writer

(Continued from page 1)

click image to enlarge

Related headlines

Lobster fight 'just a blip'
amid trade with Canada

Maine's lobster battles with Canada represent just a fraction of the trade relationship between the two regions, which depend heavily on each other for goods and tourism.

"Canada is our most important trading partner and Maine's exports have been increasing in recent years," said James McConnon, an extension business and economics specialist and professor of economics at the University of Maine. "We're also a heavy importer from Canada. Our tourism depends heavily on Canadian traffic coming into the state, as well."

Tension between Maine and Canada rose as Canadian lobstermen, upset over low prices caused by a glut of U.S. lobster being sent to Canadian processing plants, blocked shipments and forced several plants to close down. Sen. Olympia Snowe on Wednesday urged Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to enter the fray.

The two regions depend on each other for more than just lobster.

Last year, Canada shipped $2.1 billion in commodity products to Maine, while Maine shipped $1 billion in commodities to Canada, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Among the highest volume products coming from Canada into the state were oil, chemical woodpulp, petroleum gases, electrical energy, crustaceans and paper.

Although some products may have been cheaper in the past to get from Canada, the strengthening of the Canadian dollar versus the U.S. dollar has increased the relative cost of Canadian products, said George Criner, director of the school of economics at the University of Maine.

Currently, a U.S. dollar equals 0.99 Canadian dollars.

"The relationship with Canada is more symbiotic than it is complicated," said Jeffrey Bennett, the Canada desk director for the Maine International Trade Center.

The recent lobster tensions are "just a blip" in the overall trade relationship between Maine and Canada, Bennett said.

Canada exported nearly $94 million in crustaceans to Maine last year, the Census Bureau said. Maine, meanwhile, sent nearly $203 million in crustaceans to its northern neighbor, making shellfish Maine's top export to Canada. Maine's other exports to Canada include paper, wood, prepared or frozen vegetables, meat and fish, according to the Census Bureau.

-- Jessica Hall

This year, Maine has had a bumper crop of lobster that it can't handle in its three processing plants.

"There's way more supply than consumers have the appetite for," Resch said. "The guy in Iowa who is watching his cornfield wither is not going to go out to a Red Lobster to celebrate with lobster. There's only so much lobster people choose to eat."


While some lobster was rotting because there was no capacity at Maine's three processing plants and Canadian processors were temporarily blocked from taking Maine lobster, part of the problem was eased through an unofficial, unspoken decision by lobstermen not to fish for part of July, said Resch. That eased a backlog into the processing plants.

"The tie-up averted a huge disaster," Resch said.

As much as lobstermen complain that they get too low a price at the docks, dealers complain that the quality of lobsters this year is bad because of the warmer water temperature -- which softens shells -- and that too much supply is ending up in processing plants, which pay less than the live market.

"I lose money on a lobster that goes to a processing plant. The plant might pay $2.30 a pound, and I paid $2.50 or $3 a pound to get them from a co-op or other dealer," Nadeau said. "I lose 25 cents to 40 cents (per pound) or more on the bad ones, so I have to build that into the price of the good ones I sell to offset the loss."

Seventy-five percent of the total catch in the United States and Canada is processed, and Canada controls more than 90 percent of the processing market, according to the Lobster Institute. Canada has 32 processing plants; Maine has three major plants. Maine has relied on Canadian processing plants for more than 60 years, because the state lacks enough plants to handle the catch.

Maine has lost two plants in the past year. Live Lobster, a processing plant in Gouldsboro, closed earlier this year. Portland Shellfish Co.'s processing facility was closed in April by federal regulators for "numerous violations" of federal laws and health regulations.

That left three major processing plants in Maine -- Cozy Harbor Seafood in Portland, Shucks Maine Lobster, and Linda Bean's Maine Lobster in Rockland. Smaller facilities such as Maine Coast Shellfish in York exist and Sea Hag Seafood is trying to open its doors in Tenants Harbor.

The closure of Portland Shellfish was a hit to the industry, dealers said. With fewer places to ship lobster and processors with less competition, other processors started paying lower prices.

"It probably cost everyone 25 cents a pound when they went out of business," Nadeau said.


For a lobster to get to a fine restaurant, it has to be a higher-quality, harder-shelled lobster.

For Hancock County lobstermen to supply 2,000 pounds of high-quality lobster for a cruise ship Wednesday, they had to catch 8,000 pounds of lobster. The remaining 6,000 pounds went to lobster shacks or processors, said John Sackton, editor and publisher of, a website that covers the industry.

For restaurants to keep food at 35 percent of total costs, they have to charge more than $14 a pound for lobster if they pay $5 a pound from a dealer. They usually charge more -- as much as $17 or $20 a pound -- since seafood is fragile and has a short shelf-life. Even a simple lobster roll at a roadside stand involves the cost of picking and cleaning the lobster.

"A lobster travels in an ever-increasing ring," Bean said. "People get paid for each step along the way and we have to account for the losses. That's how a lobster roll costs $17 and a white tablecloth, fancy lobster dinner costs $60 in a big city."

Staff Writer Jessica Hall can be contacted at 791-6316 or at:


Were you interviewed for this story? If so, please fill out our accuracy form

Send question/comment to the editors

Further Discussion

Here at we value our readers and are committed to growing our community by encouraging you to add to the discussion. To ensure conscientious dialogue we have implemented a strict no-bullying policy. To participate, you must follow our Terms of Use.

Questions about the article? Add them below and we’ll try to answer them or do a follow-up post as soon as we can. Technical problems? Email them to us with an exact description of the problem. Make sure to include:
  • Type of computer or mobile device your are using
  • Exact operating system and browser you are viewing the site on (TIP: You can easily determine your operating system here.)