Plunging temperatures across half the country Thursday underscored a stark reality for low-income Americans who rely on heating aid: Their dollars won’t go as far this winter because of rising energy costs.

Forecasters warned people to be wary of hypothermia and frostbite from an arctic blast that’s gripping a large swath from the Midwest to the Northeast, where the temperature, without the wind chill factored in, dipped to minus-32 on Thursday morning in Watertown, New York, and set a record for the day of minus-34 atop the Northeast’s highest peak, Mount Washington in New Hampshire.

Even before the cold snap, the Department of Energy projected that heating costs were going to track upward this winter, and many people are keeping a wary eye on their fuel tanks to ensure they don’t run out.

Elizabeth Parker, 88, of Sanford said she lives in fear of running out of fuel and remains vigilant in monitoring the gauge outside her trailer just in case, especially during cold weather. She said she is allowed to request a fuel delivery thanks to federal aid, but only when her gauge dips to one-eighth of a tank.

“I couldn’t get along without it,” said Parker, who lives with her 93-year-old husband, Robert Parker, along with a cat, a dog and four birds.

Prolonged, dangerous cold weather this week has sent advocates for the homeless scrambling to get people off the streets and to bring in extra beds for them. Frozen pipes and dead car batteries added to the misery across the region.

Despite the cold, there was some good news for recipients of federal aid from the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program. President Trump released nearly $3 billion, or 90 percent, of the funding in October after previously trying to eliminate the program.

But projected energy cost increases will effectively reduce the purchasing power by $330 million, making it imperative that the remaining funding be released, said Mark Wolfe, executive director of the National Energy Assistance Directors’ Association.

This winter, energy costs were projected to grow by 12 percent for natural gas, 17 percent for home heating oil, 18 percent for propane and 8 percent for electricity, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

But energy prices this winter may be even higher than those projections. According to Wolfe, colder weather could lead to even higher levels of consumption, and resulting prices could push the cost of winter heating up to $1,800 this winter for those using heating oil, 45 percent more than last year’s level.

Northern New England is starting one of the longest, most intense cold snaps on record.

At Mount Washington, where the previous cold record was minus-31, set in 1933, the observatory posted a Facebook video showing weather observer Adam Gill emptying a pitcher of boiling water into the air, where it immediately turns to snow in the cold and hurricane-force winds.