California lawmakers rallied enough votes Friday to pass the nation’s toughest “net neutrality” law to prevent Internet providers from favoring certain websites, setting up a fight with federal regulators who voted last year to erase such rules.

If Gov. Jerry Brown signs the law in the coming weeks, California will become the powerhouse in a growing group of states at odds with the Federal Communications Commission in a clash that could end up before the Supreme Court.

The legislation, which was the subject of intense lobbying by the broadband industry, prevents Internet providers from blocking, slowing or favoring certain websites.

It bans providers from collecting new fees from apps and sites as a condition of reaching Internet users. And it makes it illegal for carriers to exempt apps from consumers’ monthly data caps if it could harm competing startups and small businesses in “abusive” ways.

The bill seeks to turn California into the leader of a widening state-led backlash against the FCC.

On Friday, the state Senate tallied enough votes to pass the legislation. The state assembly approved a version Thursday.

“It would have huge implications for the U.S., because California is so central to all things ‘net and is the world’s eighth-largest economy,” said Carl Tobias, a law professor at the University of Richmond. A lawsuit targeting the bill could eventually find its way to the Supreme Court, Tobias said. The court is already weighing this year whether to hear an unrelated lawsuit on net neutrality.