The International Space Station cannot stay in orbit 250 miles above us forever – which is why NASA has shared updated plans outlining when, where and how the huge structure will fall to Earth.

In January 2031, the station – which launched in the year 2000 and is 356 feet (109 meters) from end to end – will plunge into the waters of Point Nemo, an uninhabited part of the southern Pacific Ocean, where spacecraft and satellites go to die. Or, as it’s put in NASA’s newly published transition report, to “de-orbit.”

Some analysts call the remote location the “spacecraft cemetery,” and others refer to it as the “loneliest place on Earth” because the nearest mainland is 1,670 miles away. As the National Ocean Service puts it: “You can’t get farther away from land than ‘Point Nemo.’ ”

Stijn Lemmens, a space debris expert, said in 2018 that 250 to 300 spacecraft are believed to be buried in Nemo’s waters.

The space lab, which also serves as an observatory, has been continuously occupied by astronauts for more than 20 years and will operate until 2030, under a commitment from the Biden administration.

“While the ISS will not last forever, NASA expects to be able to operate it safely through 2030,” the report published Monday reads.


In a 24-hour period, the station orbits Earth 16 times, traveling through 16 sunrises and sunsets, according to NASA.

It has for over two decades been at the forefront of research and discoveries, with Robyn Gatens, director of the International Space Station at NASA headquarters, calling it “a groundbreaking scientific platform in microgravity” that seeks to benefit humanity and shape the future of space exploration and travel.

But the ISS is aging and must eventually retire.

Phil McAlister, director of commercial spaceflight at NASA headquarters, said the plan delivered to Congress outlines a “smooth transition to commercial destinations after retirement of the International Space Station in 2030.”

The future of space science remains an intense focus for NASA and in many other countries, with organizations poised to execute a number of missions that include exploring the moon and Mars.

Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin, which was founded by Jeff Bezos (who owns The Washington Post), continue to experiment in space tourism, with both companies hoping to offer groups fleeting rocket trips to space this year.


Even Alexa may be venturing into space in the near future, with Amazon confirming that astronauts may one day be able to “ask for near real-time data about the spacecraft and the mission” while inside the capsule.

Because of its giant size, the station’s return to Earth must be expertly controlled, and operators will need assistance from visiting vehicles to safely lower its altitude.

According to the “de-orbit plan,” detailed in NASA’s newly published transition report, operators will undertake a range of maneuvers to “ensure safe atmospheric entry.”

Operated by five space agencies representing 15 countries, the station includes several sleeping quarters, a gym and a 360-degree viewing window. But while the floating structure is vast, those on board have reported leaks and remain alert for flying space junk.

In 2016, one of the lab’s windows was hit, and the European Space Agency said the resulting chip in the glass was probably caused by something as unassuming as a flake of paint.

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