Religion is big business. Just how big? A new study, published this week by a father-daughter researcher team, says religion is bigger than Facebook, Google and Apple – combined.

The article in the Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion said the annual revenues of faith-based enterprises – not just churches but hospitals, schools, charities and even gospel musicians and halal food makers – are more than $378 billion. And that’s not counting the annual shopping bonanza motivated by Christmas.

Georgetown University’s Brian Grim and the Newseum’s Melissa Grim – in a study sponsored by an organization called Faith Counts, which promotes the value of religion – produced a 31-page breakdown of all the ways religion contributes to the U.S. economy.

The largest chunk of that $378 billion tally comes from faith-based health-care systems. Religious groups run many of the hospitals in the United States; Catholic health systems alone reportedly account for 1 in 6 hospital beds in the country.

Then there are churches and congregations themselves. Based on prior censuses of U.S. bodies of worship, the Grims looked at 344,894 congregations, from 236 different religious denominations (217 of them Christian, and others ranging from Shinto to Tao to Zoroastrian). Collectively, those congregations count about half the American population as members. The average annual income for a congregation, the study said, is $242,910.

Most of that income comes from members’ donations and dues, meaning Americans give $74.5 billion to their congregations per year, the study said.

Religious charities also contribute to the economy. By far the largest faith-based charity, according to the study, is Lutheran Services of America, with an annual operating revenue of about $21 billion. The study counted 17 more faith-based charities, all among Forbes’s 50 biggest charities in America, with revenues ranging from $300 million (Cross International) to $6.6 billion (YMCA USA).

Almost all the charities are Christian, except for the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, with an annual operating revenue of $400 million.

Religious revenues include faith-based colleges and universities, where 2 million students pay more than $46.7 billion in tuition annually. The tally includes tuition revenues for religious elementary through high schools, plus the Christian book industry, sales of Christian music, the Christian cable networks EWTN and CBN and the $1.9 billion halal food industry that caters to faithful Muslim consumers. The study counted $12.5 billion in annual sales of traditional kosher foods, but not the $300 billion in food sold that has a kosher certification but, like everything from Oreos to Coca-Cola, is generally purchased by non-Jewish consumers.

The study suggested all sorts of other ways one could count the contribution of religion to the U.S. economy – the revenues of faith-linked businesses such as Hobby Lobby and Chick-fil-A, the box office profits of religious blockbuster movies such as “Heaven Is for Real,” even the household income of millions of Americans who run their financial lives guided by their faiths.

But sticking just to the direct profits of faith, religion comes out as highly lucrative – a larger chunk of the country’s $16 trillion GDP than many giant corporations.